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Qubic Consensus aka Quorum

Consensus is integral to maintaining harmony within a network of computers (known as Computors in Qubic), allowing them to agree on specific decisions. In the context of Qubic, this consensus primarily pertains to the execution of transfers and smart contracts. Qubic's unique consensus protocol hinges on a quorum-based computation (QBC) system, which necessitates agreement from ⅔+ (or 451+) of the 676 Computors to validate the outcome of a calculation, referred to as Quorum.

Only the top-performing 676 Computors, determined by the number of solutions their AI miners find, qualify for each epoch (a period of one week). This Usefull Proof-of-Work mechanism thereby provides a system of ranking where the more solutions a Computor's miner can find, the higher its ranking. However, this mining operation is solely for the purpose of establishing their ranking, not for transaction validation as in traditional blockchain systems.

Once qualified for an epoch, a Computor's role is to execute transactions on the Spectrum (the Qubic equivalent of a ledger) and execute smart contracts. However, to earn revenue, these Computors must demonstrate high performance in terms of speed and network compatibility. They are required to swiftly process transactions and be recognized by their fellow Computors in the network. Failure to keep up with the network's speed will result in them being ousted from their position, ensuring only the most efficient machines participate in the decision-making process.

The end result is a consensus protocol that maintains an equilibrium between computational work and operational efficiency. This consensus mechanism ensures a decentralized, adaptable, and high-performance blockchain network, that upholds the integrity and accuracy of the Spectrum.

Key Features Include:

  • Trustworthiness: In Qubic, the consensus guarantees reliability as it mandates the majority agreement before a finalization, reducing the chances of errors and maintaining the integrity of the shared Spectrum.

  • Adaptive: The Qubic consensus protocol is designed to be highly adaptive to ensure the network operates at peak performance. The system continually reassesses and ranks the Computors based on the solutions discovered by their AI miners during each epoch. Only the 676 most efficient Computors qualify to participate in the consensus process. Those unable to keep up with the network's pace are replaced, ensuring the network consistently comprises the most capable Computors. This adaptiveness creates a dynamic environment that values and rewards efficiency and performance.

  • Decentralization: True decentralization is a cornerstone of the Qubic platform. All major decisions, including validation of transfers and smart contract outcomes, are made through a quorum of 451+ Computors, rather than being controlled by a single entity. Moreover, the Administrator has no influence over smart contract execution, voting, or Qubic units (qus) distribution. This structure maintains a balance of power and prevents any single party from dominating the network, keeping the system genuinely decentralized and democratic.

In short, Qubic's consensus protocol contributes to a reliable, efficient, and democratic blockchain environment, setting it apart from many existing platforms.